Application FAQs

Here are Application FAQssummaries of our application studies accompanied by the most frequently asked questions.

If you are interested in a full study, you can request it using the form at the bottom of this page.  Please indicate the title of the study in your message.

WHEAT

With the Alveolab

Flour discrimination for wafer production. Industrial processes usually do not appreciate changes in raw material quality. There is a strong need for controlling the properties of wheat flour to ensure it will perform well during processing and allow for a consistent final product which meets customer specifications. This study, in partnership with an industrial wafer producer, have for objective to discriminate 2 “good” flours from a “medium” flour and a “bad” flour. It demonstrates that the Alveolab complies with this objective.

Effect of cysteine on wheat dough rheology. The use of modifiers in the production of baked goods is common practice today. L-Cysteine is commonly added to doughs to shorten mixing and fermentation time. It reacts with SS bonds in dough, breaking them with concomitant reduction to SH groups. The effect of cysteine on dough rheological properties was investigated using the Alveolab.

Effect of damaged starch on dough rheology. Milling process causes physical damage to a proportion of the starch granules, thereby altering the functional properties of the wheat flour. A high level of damaged starch results in firm and sticky dough, sticky crumb, low bread loaf volume, browning crust and firm bread crumb. The effect of damaged starch on dough rheological properties was investigated using the Alveolab.

Effect of gluten on dough rheology. Also known as wheat gluten, vital wheat gluten is commonly used to improve the machinability of the dough. Consisting of mainly gliadin and glutenin, wheat gluten is unique among cereal proteins based on its ability to form a cohesive and viscoelastic matrix capable of retaining gas which makes it suitable for the preparation of leavened bakery products. The effect of added vital wheat gluten on dough rheological properties was investigated using two types of flours according to the standard Alveograh protocol.

Effect of salt reduction. Salt has always been a very commonly used product for both food preservation and taste enhancement. Excess sodium intake is a factor contributing to high blood pressure and is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. In addition to its effects on health, salt has recognized impacts on doughs rheological properties. This work evaluates the effect of salt reduction on dough rheological properties using the Alveolab.

Effect of sucrose on dough rheology. Beyond its contributions as a sweetener and flavor-enhancer, sucrose (often called table sugar) acts as a tenderizer by absorbing water and inhibiting flour gluten development, as well as delaying starch gelatinization. Sucrose also speeds up the yeast activity and caramelizes under heat, to provide cooked and baked foods with pleasing color and aroma. The effect of added sucrose on dough rheological properties was investigated using two types of flours according to the standard Alveograh protocol.

Effect of wheat bug infestation on rheological properties of wheat. Wheat bug infestation alters the gluten properties of the wheat kernel, where wheat bug-proteinase affects the disruption of the gluten complex thus influencing the deterioration of rheological properties of wheat dough. The effects of wheat bug infestation on dough rheological properties were investigated using the Alveolab.

With the Mixolab 2

Effect of heat treatment on the functionnal properties of wheat flour. With the increasing demand for clean label products, heat treatment appears to be the most appealing approach for processing wheat-based food due to its simplicity and that it is chemical free. In this study, heat treated wheat flours were tested for their rheological properties using the Mixolab 2.

Effect of salt reduction. Salt has always been a very commonly used product for both food preservation and taste enhancement. Excess sodium intake is a factor contributing to high blood pressure and is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. In addition to its effects on health, salt has recognized impacts on doughs rheological properties. This work evaluates the effect of salt reduction on dough rheological properties using the Mixolab.

Effects of xylanases on wheat dough rheology. The use of modifiers in the production of baked goods is common practice today. Xylanases are of great value in baking as they have been found to improve the bread volume, crumb structure and reduce stickiness. The effect of 3 xylanases from different sources (bacterial and fungal) on dough rheological properties was investigated using Mixolab.

Cricket powder analysis - blend. Due to a rising demand for protein, food industry is seeking new alternative protein sources that can be used for human consumption. High in protein, low in lipids and sugars, flour made from insects is an excellent way to improve the nutritional composition of the cereal products. However, insect powders certainly have important impacts on dough’s rheological properties. The cereal industry must anticipate these effects and adapt formulations and/or processes. Consequently, it is necessary to assess the rheological impact of insect powders on bread dough.

Ground wheat Mixolab HC vs wheat flour Mixolab. Rheological properties of 150 wheat samples of both flour (prepared using LabMill) and ground wheat were evaluated using the Mixolab according to the Chopin+ protocol. The relationship between flour and ground wheat data were assessed in order to predict flour results based on the ground wheat samples.

Mixolab results of 150 wheat flours adapted hydration vs constant hydration. Rheological properties of 150 wheat flours (prepared using LabMill) were evaluated using the Mixolab according to the Chopin+ protocol at both constant and adapted hydration. The relationships between both protocols were assessed in order to predict adapted hydration results based on the corresponding constant hydration results.

With the Rheo F4

Effect of salt reduction. Salt has always been a very commonly used product for both food preservation and taste enhancement. Excess sodium intake is a factor contributing to high blood pressure and is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. In addition to its effects on health, salt has recognized impacts on doughs rheological properties. This work evaluates the effect of salt reduction on dough rheological properties using the Rheofermentometer Rheo F4.

 Weights impact on the RheoF4 results. In order to perform a Rheo F4 test, a piston loaded with weights, defined by the protocol (i.e 2kg for the CHOPIN protocol), must be place on the dough sample. This study evaluates the impact of the weight on the dough sample on the Rheo F4 results.

Effect of Ascorbic acid on dough rheology. The proofing tolerance of the dough and therefore the characteristics of the final product can be enhanced by adding ascorbic acid. It is widely used in bread making processes to improve dough properties in regards to stability, tenacity, proofing tolerance and bread volume. To optimize final product quality, it is important to study and understand the impacts of this modifier on the dough. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid on dough during proofing.

With the SRC-CHOPIN

Ground wheat SRC VS wheat flour SRC.  Originally conceived and developed for the evaluation of soft wheat flours, the SRC method may also be used for the analysis of ground wheat. In this study, we evaluate the functionality of 150 wheat samples from different class (soft and hard) using both flour (prepared using LabMill) and ground wheat.

How to ensure the consistency of results using the SRC-CHOPIN. PART1   The SRC-CHOPIN provides an automated method of the SRC test1. It drastically reduces the impact of the operator on the results. However, preparation of flour samples and solvent solutions remain manual. This note summarizes the most important recommendations to ensure consistent results on your SRC-CHOPIN. 

How to ensure the consistency of results using the SRC-CHOPIN. PART2   The SRC-CHOPIN provides an automated method of the SRC test1. It drastically reduces the impact of the operator on the results. However, preparation of flour samples and solvent solutions remain manual. This note summarizes the most important recommendations to ensure consistent results on your SRC-CHOPIN.

With the Quatuor 2

Separation of a mix composed of wheat and pea using the Quator II. Consumer demand is leading to a change in farming practices. More and more, a cereal is associated with a legume and this trend is likely to become more widespread. This work evaluates the feasibility of separating a mix composed of wheat kernels and peas using the Quatuor 2.

With the SDmatic

Starch damage analysis SDmatic method vs enzymatic method. Measurement of damaged starch is of considerable importance in the milling and baking industries. There is a need for a rapid and accurate measurement. Currently accepted methods fall into two categories: enzymatic (AACC 76 30. 02) and iodometric (AACC 76-33.01). The precision, as well as the relationship between methods, were investigated.

 

OTHER PRODUCTS (RICE, PEAS, SEEDS...)

With the Mixolab 2

Analysis of gluten free mixes and recipes. More and more people are choosing a gluten-free diet. In this study, gluten-free samples were tested in both formats (mixes and dough recipes) for their rheological properties using the Mixolab.

Selection and Evaluation of Rice Flours for Gluten-Free Cookies. More and more people are choosing a gluten-free1 diet. Over the past decade, various products have been utilized to replace wheat, which is high in gluten. Rice is often chosen for its neutral flavour, its whiteness, it is ease of digestability, low sodium content and its hypoallergenic properties. In this study, rice flours were tested for their rheological properties using the Mixolab 2.

With the Quatuor 2

Separation of a mix composed of wheat and pea using the Quator II. Consumer demand is leading to a change in farming practices. More and more, a cereal is associated with a legume and this trend is likely to become more widespread. This work evaluates the feasibility of separating a mix composed of wheat kernels and peas using the Quatuor 2.

Datura isolation from sunflower seeds. "Datura Stramonium" is a powerful hallucinogenic plant and very toxic. In June 2017, the Regional Federation of Defense against Pests and Diseases puts in place a warning against the proliferation of Datura in sunflower crops. It is therefore essential to detect the presence of this contaminant in grain/seed samples. The purpose of this study is to define the optimal settings in order to separate the Datura from good sunflower seeds and provide an accurate estimate of the percentage of contamination, even in batches with low levels of contamination.

DOUGH RHEOLOGY

With the Alveolab

Effect of cysteine on wheat dough rheology. The use of modifiers in the production of baked goods is common practice today. L-Cysteine is commonly added to doughs to shorten mixing and fermentation time. It reacts with SS bonds in dough, breaking them with concomitant reduction to SH groups. The effect of cysteine on dough rheological properties was investigated using the Alveolab.

Effect of damaged starch on dough rheology. Milling process causes physical damage to a proportion of the starch granules, thereby altering the functional properties of the wheat flour. A high level of damaged starch results in firm and sticky dough, sticky crumb, low bread loaf volume, browning crust and firm bread crumb. The effect of damaged starch on dough rheological properties was investigated using the Alveolab.

Effect of gluten on dough rheology. Also known as wheat gluten, vital wheat gluten is commonly used to improve the machinability of the dough. Consisting of mainly gliadin and glutenin, wheat gluten is unique among cereal proteins based on its ability to form a cohesive and viscoelastic matrix capable of retaining gas which makes it suitable for the preparation of leavened bakery products. The effect of added vital wheat gluten on dough rheological properties was investigated using two types of flours according to the standard Alveograh protocol.

Effect of salt reduction-Alveolab Salt has always been a very commonly used product for both food preservation and taste enhancement. Excess sodium intake is a factor contributing to high blood pressure and is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. In addition to its effects on health, salt has recognized impacts on doughs rheological properties. This work evaluates the effect of salt reduction on dough rheological properties using the Alveolab.

Effect of sucrose on dough rheology. Beyond its contributions as a sweetener and flavor-enhancer, sucrose (often called table sugar) acts as a tenderizer by absorbing water and inhibiting flour gluten development, as well as delaying starch gelatinization. Sucrose also speeds up the yeast activity and caramelizes under heat, to provide cooked and baked foods with pleasing color and aroma. The effect of added sucrose on dough rheological properties was investigated using two types of flours according to the standard Alveograh protocol.

Effect of wheat bug infestation on rheological properties of wheat. Wheat bug infestation alters the gluten properties of the wheat kernel, where wheat bug-proteinase affects the disruption of the gluten complex thus influencing the deterioration of rheological properties of wheat dough. The effects of wheat bug infestation on dough rheological properties were investigated using the Alveolab.

With the Mixolab 2

Effect of heat treatment on the functionnal properties of wheat flour. With the increasing demand for clean label products, heat treatment appears to be the most appealing approach for processing wheat-based food due to its simplicity and that it is chemical free. In this study, heat treated wheat flours were tested for their rheological properties using the Mixolab 2.

Effect of salt reduction. Salt has always been a very commonly used product for both food preservation and taste enhancement. Excess sodium intake is a factor contributing to high blood pressure and is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. In addition to its effects on health, salt has recognized impacts on doughs rheological properties. This work evaluates the effect of salt reduction on dough rheological properties using the Mixolab.

Effects of xylanases on wheat dough rheology. The use of modifiers in the production of baked goods is common practice today. Xylanases are of great value in baking as they have been found to improve the bread volume, crumb structure and reduce stickiness. The effect of 3 xylanases from different sources (bacterial and fungal) on dough rheological properties was investigated using Mixolab.

Analysis of gluten free mixes and recipes. More and more people are choosing a gluten-free diet. In this study, gluten-free samples were tested in both formats (mixes and dough recipes) for their rheological properties using the Mixolab.

Cricket powder analysis - pure. Due to a rising demand for protein, the food industry is seeking new alternative protein sources that can be used for human consumption. High in protein, low in lipids and sugars, flour made from insects is an excellent way to improve the nutritional composition of cereal products. However, insect powders certainly have important impacts on dough’s rheological properties. The cereal industry must anticipate these effects and adapt formulations and/or processes. Consequently, it is necessary to assess the rheological behavior of cricket powder.

Cricket powder analysis - blend. Due to a rising demand for protein, food industry is seeking new alternative protein sources that can be used for human consumption. High in protein, low in lipids and sugars, flour made from insects is an excellent way to improve the nutritional composition of the cereal products. However, insect powders certainly have important impacts on dough’s rheological properties. The cereal industry must anticipate these effects and adapt formulations and/or processes. Consequently, it is necessary to assess the rheological impact of insect powders on bread dough.

Selection and Evaluation of Rice Flours for Gluten-Free Cookies. More and more people are choosing a gluten-free1 diet. Over the past decade, various products have been utilized to replace wheat, which is high in gluten. Rice is often chosen for its neutral flavour, its whiteness, it is ease of digestability, low sodium content and its hypoallergenic properties. In this study, rice flours were tested for their rheological properties using the Mixolab 2.

Effect of citric acid on Mixolab data. Naturally occurring in citrus fruits, citric acid is often used as a natural preservative or to add an acidic or sour taste to food and baked products. This work evaluates the effect of citric acid on dough rheological properties using the Mixolab.

Ground wheat Mixolab HC vs wheat flour Mixolab. Rheological properties of 150 wheat samples of both flour (prepared using LabMill) and ground wheat were evaluated using the Mixolab according to the Chopin+ protocol. The relationship between flour and ground wheat data were assessed in order to predict flour results based on the ground wheat samples.

Mixolab results of 150 wheat flours adapted hydration vs constant hydration. Rheological properties of 150 wheat flours (prepared using LabMill) were evaluated using the Mixolab according to the Chopin+ protocol at both constant and adapted hydration. The relationships between both protocols were assessed in order to predict adapted hydration results based on the corresponding constant hydration results.

With the Rheo F4

Effect of salt reduction. Salt has always been a very commonly used product for both food preservation and taste enhancement. Excess sodium intake is a factor contributing to high blood pressure and is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. In addition to its effects on health, salt has recognized impacts on doughs rheological properties. This work evaluates the effect of salt reduction on dough rheological properties using the Rheofermentometer Rheo F4.

Weights impact on the RheoF4 results. In order to perform a Rheo F4 test, a piston loaded with weights, defined by the protocol (i.e 2kg for the CHOPIN protocol), must be place on the dough sample. This study evaluates the impact of the weight on the dough sample on the Rheo F4 results.

Effect of Ascorbic acid on dough rheology. The proofing tolerance of the dough and therefore the characteristics of the final product can be enhanced by adding ascorbic acid. It is widely used in bread making processes to improve dough properties in regards to stability, tenacity, proofing tolerance and bread volume. To optimize final product quality, it is important to study and understand the impacts of this modifier on the dough. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid on dough during proofing.

DAMAGED STARCH

With the Alveolab

Effect of damaged starch on dough rheology. Milling process causes physical damage to a proportion of the starch granules, thereby altering the functional properties of the wheat flour. A high level of damaged starch results in firm and sticky dough, sticky crumb, low bread loaf volume, browning crust and firm bread crumb. The effect of damaged starch on dough rheological properties was investigated using the Alveolab.

With the SDmatic

Starch damage analysis SDmatic method vs enzymatic method. Measurement of damaged starch is of considerable importance in the milling and baking industries. There is a need for a rapid and accurate measurement. Currently accepted methods fall into two categories: enzymatic (AACC 76 30. 02) and iodometric (AACC 76-33.01). The precision, as well as the relationship between methods, were investigated.

 

ADDITIVES

With the Alveolab

Effect of cysteine on wheat dough rheology. The use of modifiers in the production of baked goods is common practice today. L-Cysteine is commonly added to doughs to shorten mixing and fermentation time. It reacts with SS bonds in dough, breaking them with concomitant reduction to SH groups. The effect of cysteine on dough rheological properties was investigated using the Alveolab.

Effect of sucrose on dough rheology. Beyond its contributions as a sweetener and flavor-enhancer, sucrose (often called table sugar) acts as a tenderizer by absorbing water and inhibiting flour gluten development, as well as delaying starch gelatinization. Sucrose also speeds up the yeast activity and caramelizes under heat, to provide cooked and baked foods with pleasing color and aroma. The effect of added sucrose on dough rheological properties was investigated using two types of flours according to the standard Alveograh protocol.

With the MIxolab 2

Effects of xylanases on wheat dough rheology. The use of modifiers in the production of baked goods is common practice today. Xylanases are of great value in baking as they have been found to improve the bread volume, crumb structure and reduce stickiness. The effect of 3 xylanases from different sources (bacterial and fungal) on dough rheological properties was investigated using Mixolab.

Effect of citric acid on Mixolab data. Naturally occurring in citrus fruits, citric acid is often used as a natural preservative or to add an acidic or sour taste to food and baked products. This work evaluates the effect of citric acid on dough rheological properties using the Mixolab.

With the Rheo F4

Effect of Ascorbic acid on dough rheology. The proofing tolerance of the dough and therefore the characteristics of the final product can be enhanced by adding ascorbic acid. It is widely used in bread making processes to improve dough properties in regards to stability, tenacity, proofing tolerance and bread volume. To optimize final product quality, it is important to study and understand the impacts of this modifier on the dough. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid on dough during proofing.

 

PRODUCTION FOLLOW-UP

With the Alveolab

Flour discrimination for wafer production.  Industrial processes usually do not appreciate changes in raw material quality. There is a strong need for controlling the properties of wheat flour to ensure it will perform well during processing and allow for a consistent final product which meets customer specifications. This study, in partnership with an industrial wafer producer, have for objective to discriminate 2 “good” flours from a “medium” flour and a “bad” flour. It demonstrates that the Alveolab complies with this objective.

With the Mixolab 2

Selection and Evaluation of Rice Flours for Gluten-Free Cookies. More and more people are choosing a gluten-free1 diet. Over the past decade, various products have been utilized to replace wheat, which is high in gluten. Rice is often chosen for its neutral flavour, its whiteness, it is ease of digestability, low sodium content and its hypoallergenic properties. In this study, rice flours were tested for their rheological properties using the Mixolab 2.

NEW TRENDS

With the Alveolab

Effect of salt reduction. Salt has always been a very commonly used product for both food preservation and taste enhancement. Excess sodium intake is a factor contributing to high blood pressure and is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. In addition to its effects on health, salt has recognized impacts on doughs rheological properties. This work evaluates the effect of salt reduction on dough rheological properties using the Alveolab.

With the Mixolab 2

Effect of heat treatment on the functionnal properties of wheat flour. With the increasing demand for clean label products, heat treatment appears to be the most appealing approach for processing wheat-based food due to its simplicity and that it is chemical free. In this study, heat treated wheat flours were tested for their rheological properties using the Mixolab 2.

Effect of salt reduction. Salt has always been a very commonly used product for both food preservation and taste enhancement. Excess sodium intake is a factor contributing to high blood pressure and is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. In addition to its effects on health, salt has recognized impacts on doughs rheological properties. This work evaluates the effect of salt reduction on dough rheological properties using the Mixolab.

Analysis of gluten free mixes and recipes. More and more people are choosing a gluten-free diet. In this study, gluten-free samples were tested in both formats (mixes and dough recipes) for their rheological properties using the Mixolab.

Cricket powder analysis - pure. Due to a rising demand for protein, the food industry is seeking new alternative protein sources that can be used for human consumption. High in protein, low in lipids and sugars, flour made from insects is an excellent way to improve the nutritional composition of cereal products. However, insect powders certainly have important impacts on dough’s rheological properties. The cereal industry must anticipate these effects and adapt formulations and/or processes. Consequently, it is necessary to assess the rheological behavior of cricket powder.

Cricket powder analysis - blend. Due to a rising demand for protein, food industry is seeking new alternative protein sources that can be used for human consumption. High in protein, low in lipids and sugars, flour made from insects is an excellent way to improve the nutritional composition of the cereal products. However, insect powders certainly have important impacts on dough’s rheological properties. The cereal industry must anticipate these effects and adapt formulations and/or processes. Consequently, it is necessary to assess the rheological impact of insect powders on bread dough.

Selection and Evaluation of Rice Flours for Gluten-Free Cookies. More and more people are choosing a gluten-free1 diet. Over the past decade, various products have been utilized to replace wheat, which is high in gluten. Rice is often chosen for its neutral flavour, its whiteness, it is ease of digestability, low sodium content and its hypoallergenic properties. In this study, rice flours were tested for their rheological properties using the Mixolab 2.

With the Rheo F4

Effect of salt reduction. Salt has always been a very commonly used product for both food preservation and taste enhancement. Excess sodium intake is a factor contributing to high blood pressure and is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. In addition to its effects on health, salt has recognized impacts on doughs rheological properties. This work evaluates the effect of salt reduction on dough rheological properties using the Rheofermentometer Rheo F4.

SEPARATION

With the Quatuor 2

Separation of a mix composed of wheat and pea using the Quator II. Consumer demand is leading to a change in farming practices. More and more, a cereal is associated with a legume and this trend is likely to become more widespread. This work evaluates the feasibility of separating a mix composed of wheat kernels and peas using the Quatuor 2.

Datura isolation from sunflower seeds. "Datura Stramonium" is a powerful hallucinogenic plant and very toxic. In June 2017, the Regional Federation of Defense against Pests and Diseases puts in place a warning against the proliferation of Datura in sunflower crops. It is therefore essential to detect the presence of this contaminant in grain/seed samples. The purpose of this study is to define the optimal settings in order to separate the Datura from good sunflower seeds and provide an accurate estimate of the percentage of contamination, even in batches with low levels of contamination.

OTHERS

With the Alveolab

Effect of wheat bug infestation on rheological properties of wheat. Wheat bug infestation alters the gluten properties of the wheat kernel, where wheat bug-proteinase affects the disruption of the gluten complex thus influencing the deterioration of rheological properties of wheat dough. The effects of wheat bug infestation on dough rheological properties were investigated using the Alveolab.

Alveolab parameters stability. In order to perform an Alveographic test in accordance with the existing standards, the laboratory conditions must be controlled. The Alveolab does not need to be placed in a controlled environment since the bubble is inflated in a sealed chamber, which is controlled in terms of temperature and humidity. This study evaluates whether the Alveolab is able to maintain the overall conditions within the standard limits.

Impact of oil type on the alveographic results. In order to perform an Alveographic test in accordance with the existing standards the use of specific oils is recommended (peanut oil in particular). This study evaluates the impact of several oils (peanut as a reference, Vaseline, paraffine, sunflower, rapeseed and 3 different olive oils) on the Alveographic results for two different flours (weak flour and strong flour).

Protocol modification impacts. Today, the Alveograph standard protocol is used internationally for flour quality control. This protocol was developed almost 100 years ago. Today, the Alveolab allows for the modification of all test parameters which makes it more versatile that any of the previous versions. This study demonstrates the impact of protocol modifications on Alveographic results for 2 different flours (weak and strong).

With the SRC-CHOPIN

How to ensure the consistency of results using the SRC-CHOPIN. PART1. The SRC-CHOPIN provides an automated method of the SRC test1. It drastically reduces the impact of the operator on the results. However, preparation of flour samples and solvent solutions remain manual. This note summarizes the most important recommendations to ensure consistent results on your SRC-CHOPIN.

How to ensure the consistency of results using the SRC-CHOPIN. PART2. The SRC-CHOPIN provides an automated method of the SRC test1. It drastically reduces the impact of the operator on the results. However, preparation of flour samples and solvent solutions remain manual. This note summarizes the most important recommendations to ensure consistent results on your SRC-CHOPIN.

With the Quatuor 2

Datura isolation from sunflower seeds. "Datura Stramonium" is a powerful hallucinogenic plant and very toxic. In June 2017, the Regional Federation of Defense against Pests and Diseases puts in place a warning against the proliferation of Datura in sunflower crops. It is therefore essential to detect the presence of this contaminant in grain/seed samples. The purpose of this study is to define the optimal settings in order to separate the Datura from good sunflower seeds and provide an accurate estimate of the percentage of contamination, even in batches with low levels of contamination.

 

 

RELATED TO CHOPIN TECHNOLOGIES DEVICES

Alveograph        Mixolab 2       Quatuor 2       Rheo F4

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