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Impact of different fibers on dough rheological behavior
During the past decade, fibers were introduced in the cereals industries processes with the aim to improve nutritional benefit of traditional wheat food. Advantages of consuming fiber include the production of healthful compounds during the fermentation, acceleration of transit time, lower cholesterol levels and the reduction of colon cancer risk.
The objective of this study is to evaluate with the Mixolab the rheological impact (Water absorption, dough development, starch gelatinization, stability during heating and retrogradation) of different fibers currently added on industrial wheat products.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Different types of fibers have been tested during this study :
• 4 soluble fibers (Main sources : S1 = wheat, S2 = corn, S3 = acacia gum and S4 = chicory)
• 3 insoluble fibers (Main sources: S5 = apple, S6= citrus, S7 = wheat and S8 = Oat)
These fibers were incorporated at different concentration (1/2 recommended dose, 1 recommended dose, 2 recommended dose) on the same common wheat flour and were analyzed with the Mixolab (standard protocol AACC 54-60.01, ICC173, ISO 17718) (Figure 1 and Table 1). For comparison, the flour was also analyzed pure without any fiber.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results show that soluble fibers reduce water absorption while the insoluble fibers increase it. 4 fibers (2 soluble and 2 insoluble), strengthen the gluten network resistance during dough heating when they are incorporated at a certain concentration (which is different for each fiber). Although most of tested fibers do not induce changes on starch gelatinization, 2 soluble fibers showed a negative action and 1 insoluble a positive action.
2 soluble fibers showed the ability to enhance starch retrogradation capacity (thus potentially decreasing the end product shelf life) whereas the 4 insoluble and 1 soluble were able to counteract the retrogradation speed. This study shows that every fiber has its own effect on dough rheological behavior. There is no common trend inside soluble and insoluble fibers but one specific behavior for every fiber.
The Mixolab is an interesting tool for evaluating fibers impact on dough behavior. It can be a great asset for R&D teams trying to determine the best performing fibers-enriched formula. It can be used either to improve or modify existing formulas or for developing new fiber-enriched products.